Surfaces at facilities where we see our healthcare provider are just surfaces, right?
Healthcare facilities and hospitals are designed for function and efficiency, but the furniture and fittings are also designed to look good. Gurneys, beds, mobile x-ray machines…have you ever considered the impact of these devices on the materials like walls and floors? They’re a critical aspect of the healthcare environment.
It’s a well-known fact that bacteria can survive for extended periods of time on common healthcare “touch” surfaces. Bed rails, call buttons, and bed trays are among the worst offenders. In fact, an estimated 1 in 20 patients in U.S. hospitals pick up infections they didn’t have when they arrived, including some dangerous ‘superbugs’ that are difficult to treat. Which means the fight against Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAI) begins at the surface.
It’s also important to understand the unique nature of the healthcare environment when it comes to infection control. Unknowingly, microbial reservoirs are designed and built into healthcare environments via the surface materials that are selected.
How a surface looks—and especially what it costs—usually takes precedence over an evaluation of the surface function, cleaning recommendations, and how a surface might contribute to the spread of HAIs. Can the surface be cleaned and disinfected using standard products? And if we look at the surface after it has been cleaned and disinfected—at a microscopic level—is it truly clean?
Research has shown that pathogens live on surfaces for days, weeks, even months after they have been cleaned. Research has also shown that 20-40% of HAIs have been attributed to cross infection via hands or healthcare personnel who have become contaminated from direct contact with patients—or indirectly by touching contaminated surfaces. How can surfaces really be an issue?
Healthcare facilities employ rigorous cleaning and disinfection processes, and a wide variety of products and chemicals are used. Terminal disinfection often requires higher concentrations of chemicals like bleach-based products, which are effective in eliminating Clostridium difficile (“C-diff”). And they’re used frequently. Unfortunately though, the majority of surfaces used in our healthcare environments carry warnings against the use of harsh chemicals and disinfectants, many calling out bleach specifically. Damage can occur when these products are used, and the damage begins at a microscopic level—pits, cracks and fissures, the perfect environment for bacterial colonies to form and proliferate!
The Facilities Guidelines Institute for Design and Construction of Healthcare Facilities created a list of preferred surface characteristics (of the ideal product) published for the first time in 2006 and further refined and clarified in 2010 edition. Defining these surface characteristics was the beginning of a request that specifiers and healthcare professionals take a serious look at which surface materials are being placed where. You can find the guidelines here.
The rise of these superbugs, along with increased pressure from the government and insurers, is driving hospitals to try all sorts of new approaches to stop their spread. We’ll talk more about that in our next article. You’ll find a great article about surfaces in healthcare on the Healthcare Surface Consultants blog, too.